Stage 5: GerE
GerE during engulfment
The final step in gene regulation for the formation of the mature spore is the activation of the gerE gene in the mother cell under the control of σK. After synthesis, another σK-dependent product in the form of SpoVIF is responsible for the stability and further functioning of GerE 159. GerE acts both as a repressor and as an activator for a large subset of genes in the σK regulon 95. Its inhibitory effect on σK-dependent gene expression is especially apparent, since it also represses the gene required for σK synthesis 152. On the other hand, over 40 genes are strongly dependent on GerE for their expression 95. These genes are some of the latest to be activated during the sporulation process, especially those for which relief of SpoIIID repression is required 111, 112, 129.